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Scott Foresman Reading Street 3.4.2 



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Coppell, Texas • Sacramento, California • Mesa, Arizona 

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Hurricanes and earthquakes are very 
different from each other. But in some 
ways they are the same. Hurricanes and 
earthquakes can both cause a lot of 
damage and hurt people. 

Hurricanes are huge ocean storms. 
Earthquakes are sudden movements of 
parts of the earth's surface. 

Scientists measure every hurricane 
and earthquake. 

Har d-Hitting H 

Scientists use wind 
speed to measure 
hurricanes. They use 
something called the 
Saffir-Simpson Scale. 
The scale shows the 
category of a hurricane 
and the wind speed. 

The higher the 
category number, the 
stronger the hurricane is. For example, 
a category 4 hurricane is stronger than 
a category 3 hurricane. Category 5 is 
the strongest, most destructive kind of 

wind speed: how fast the wind blows 


The Saffir-Simpson Scale 

Type of Wind Speed in 

Hurricane miles per hour (mph) 

74 to 95 mph 

96 to 110 mph 

111 to 130 mph 

131 to 155 mph 

more than 155 mph 

Category 1 
Category 2 
Category 3 
Category 4 
Category 5 


Hurricane Andrew destroyed many buildings. 

Hurricane Andrew roared across the 
Atlantic Ocean in 1992. It was one of the 
worst storms ever in the United States. At 
their peak, wind speeds reached about 
165 miles per hour. This Category 4 storm 
caused more than 25 billion dollars in 
damage. Andrew did the most damage in 
Louisiana and Florida. 

roared: moved with great noise 

4 < 

Four hurricanes slammed into Florida 
in 2004. 

Florida Hurricanes in 2004 




Category 4 
Category 2 
Category 3 
Category 3 


Aug. 13 
Sept. 5 
Sept. 16 
Sept. 25 

Florida was a disaster area after four 
hurricanes in six weeks! 

■Shaking Earthquake 

An earthquake is a shaking or sliding 
of the ground. Some earthquakes shake 
harder than others. Scientists use the 
Richter (RIK tur) Scale to measure the 
strength of an earthquake. The numbers 
on the scale go from 0.0 to 9.0. The highest 
numbers are for the strongest earthquakes. 

Sample of Richter Scale 



Lower than 4.3 

Often no damage 

4.4 to 4.8 

Little damage 

4.9 to 5.4 

Some damage 

6.0 to 6.5 

Big damage 

6.6 or higher 

Major damage 

Damage from the earthquake in California in 1994 

California has many earthquakes. 
An earthquake on January 17, 1994, 
awoke many people in the morning. This 
earthquake measured 6.7 on the Richter 
Scale. It killed 57 people and caused more 
than 40 billion dollars in damage. 

► 7 


Damage from the earthquake in Alaska in 1964 

The largest earthquake in the United 
States happened in Alaska in 1964. It 
measured 8.6 on the Richter Scale. 

The largest recorded earthquake in the 
world struck the country of Chile in 1960. 
It measured 9.5, and it killed more than 
6,000 people. 

On average, there are more than a 
million earthquakes each year. Here's some 
good news: most are so small, no one even 
feels them! 

Talk About It 

1. How are hurricanes and earthquakes 
similar? How are they different? 

2. What do you think it feels like to be in a 
place that is struck by an earthquake? 

Write About It 

3. Have you ever been in a big storm? On a 
separate sheet of paper, write about what 
happened and how you felt. 

Extend Language 

Eyes are the part of your body you use to 
see. The eye of a hurricane is the center of 
a hurricane, and usually that center is calm. 
Identify the eye of the hurricane in the photo 
on page 2. Do you think it looks like an eye? 

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Photography Credits: Cover, 2 ©NASA; 1, 3 ©Getty Creative/RF; 4 ©SuperStock Inc.; 
5 Mountain High Maps® Copyright ©1995 Digital Wisdom Inc.; 7 ©AP Photo/Douglas 
C. Pizac; 8 ©Bettmann/CORBIS. 

ISBN: 0-328-14173-9 

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. 

All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. 

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Department, Scott Foresman, 1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025. 

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